An interesting paper is Cardif and Klein (2005) which finds a ratio of 5:1 across tenure track staff in Californian universities in 2004. For comparison, the equivalent ratio across all Californian voters in the same year was 1.24%, and 1.06:1 across the US.
Some interesting points:
Sunday, February 21, 2016
Below the fold I reproduce the text of a recent comment by me on the issue of prediction vs retrodiction as validation of a scientific theory. It is a fundamental point, on which there is much confusion, so it bears preservation.